Colonel Archibald CAMPBELL, Earl of Ilay (afterwards 3rd Duke of Argyll)
Colonel of the 36th Regiment of Foot (became 2nd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment in 1881)
Appointed Colonel on 23rd March 1709 to 22nd October 1710
Archibald Campbell, Earl of Ilay (afterwards 3rd Duke of Argyle), was born at Ham House, Petersham, in Surrey, in June 1682, and resided in England until he was about seventeen years of age, when he was sent to the University of Glasgow. From thence he went to Utrecht, and made considerable advancement in the study of civil law, intending to practise in that profession. Upon his father's advancement to the Dukedom of Argyle on the 23d of June 1701, his son Archibald embraced a military life, and served under the Duke of Marlborough.
In 1705 he was constituted Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, and in the Parliament of that year, in which his brother John, who had succeeded his father as Duke of Argyle two years previously, presided as Lord High Commissioner, he sat and voted as such upon the Queen's letter; he was nominated one of the Commissioners for the Treaty of Union in 1706, and on the 19th of October of that year was created by patent, dated at Kensington, Earl and Viscount of Ilay, Lord Oransay, Dunoon, and Arrase. This nobleman was one of the sixteen representatives of the Scottish peerage, chosen by Parliament on the 13th of February 1707, and was re-chosen at every general election until his decease, with the single exception of the last Parliament of Queen Anne's reign.
(Earl of Ilay)
The Earl of Ilay, upon his brother's resignation, was, on the 1st of June 1708, sworn and admitted one of the extraordinary Lords of Session, being, says Fountainhall, "the best school of law for the nobility to learn that is in Europe." On the 23d of March 1709 Her Majesty Queen Anne appointed the Earl of Ilay to be Colonel of the 36th Regiment. The governorship of Dumbarton Castle was also conferred upon his Lordship.
Finding that a statesman's career was more congenial to his taste than the military profession, he quitted the army and resigned the colonelcy of the 36th Regiment in 1710. With his accustomed assiduity his Lordship employed himself in the acquisition of political knowledge. In 1710 he was appointed Lord Justice General of Scotland, and was sworn a Privy Councillor in the following year. Upon the accession of George I. the Earl of Ilay was constituted Lord Clerk Register; and on the breaking out of the rebellion in 1715 he again betook himself to arms in defence of the reigning family. By his prudent conduct in the Western Highlands he prevented General Gordon at the head of three thousand men, from penetrating into the country and raising levies. He joined his brother the Duke of Argyle on the 13th of November 1715, half an hour before the battle of Sheriffmuir, where he was wounded.
In 1725 this nobleman received the office of Keeper of the Privy Seal, and in December 1733 his Lordship was appointed Keeper of the Great Seal. Upon the decease of his brother, in 1743, the Earl of Ilay became third Duke of Argyle, and Hereditary Justiciary of Argyleshire and the Western Islands. He rebuilt Inveraray castle and collected one of the most valuable private libraries in Great Britain.
He played an important part in the movement led by Duncan Forbes of Culloden to promote Scottish loyalty to the Hanoverians by raising Highland regiments from among the Whig clans. After the suppression of the rebellion in 1746, he carried into effect the judicious plan of employing the Highlanders in the Royal army, which had been suggested by the Right Honourable William Pitt, afterwards the Earl of Chatham.
The Duke of Argyle continued at the head of affairs in Scotland, in full possession of his mental faculties, until his death, which happened in London, without a moment's pain, as he was sitting in his chair at dinner, on the 15th of April 1761, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. On this nobleman's death the title of Earl of Ilay became extinct; his other titles and estates in Scotland descended to his cousin, Lieut.-General John Campbell of Mamore, Colonel of the 2nd Dragoons, or Scots Greys.