by H. Everard

Chapter 3

The establishment of a regiment of foot in Ireland was fixed by Warrant dated 30th June, 1713, as follows:-
1 colonel, 1 lieut.-colonel, 1 major, 1 chaplain, 1 adjutant and quarter master, 1 surgeon, 1 mate, 10 captains,
11 lieutenants, 9 ensigns, 20 serjeants, 20 corporals, 10 drummers, and 360 private soldiers.

Queen Anne, having died on the 1st August, 1714, was succeeded by King George I., whose mother, Princess Sophia, granddaughter of King James I., had married the Elector of Hanover. The new king was proclaimed both in Dublin and Edinburgh without opposition or tumult. On the 29th instant, " the Chevalier de St. George," as the young Pretender was frequently called, who was residing in Lorraine, published a manifesto, asserting his right to the English crown.

On the 9th November, Lord Mark Kerr's regiment marched from Cork to Kinsale, where, after remaining a month, it returned to its late quarters.

On the 28th of April, 8 companies marched from Cork:-
4 to Kinsale, from which the following detachments were furnished :-


Half a company at Galbally redoubt
                                       "            "          Ninemile House redoubt
                                       "            "          Killenaule redoubt
                                       "            "          Longford Pass redoubt
2 companies to Youghal, 1 to Dungarvan, and 1 to Bantry.
With exception of the last-mentioned, these detachments returned to Cork about the middle of August.

1st June, 1715 :—

Lord Mark Kerr, Col.
Chs. Cracherode, Lt.-Col. Joseph King March Hollingworth
Benj. Columbine, Major { John Pittman
{ Ebinezer Darby
Henry Debrose 
Robert Minzies Alexr. Man, Capt. Lieut. Howell Herd
John Greenwood David Henderson John Dally
Peter Bonafous Thomas Peirson William Shenton
Reuben Caillaud Henry Staughton Daniel Caillaud
John Brooke Henry Symes William Ash
David Paine John Charlton Henry Melling
Hugh Montgomery Richard Mallen Francis Salisbury
John Miller's "Granadiers" { James Steuart, 1st Lieut.
{ Jonathan Young, 2nd Lieut.
  Henry Bland, CHAPLAIN.  
  Andrew Charlton, ADJUTANT.  
  Bartholomew Black, SURGEON.  

On the 10th of August, Lord Mark Kerr was gazetted captain of that company of which Peter Bonafous was late captain.

The death of Louis XIV., which occurred on the 1st September, was a severe blow to the Pretender, who was meditating an invasion, for the views of the Duke of Orleans, who now became regent, differed from those of the late king. In the meanwhile, the Earl of Mar had prematurely and unadvisedly summoned the Highland Clans, and had at Braemar proclaimed the Pretender, king of Great Britain.

Several regiments having been sent from Ireland to assist in suppressing this rebellion, Lord Mark Kerr's was ordered to the north, there being serious apprehensions of a Jacobite rising in those parts. On the 29th, a route was issued for the regiment to march, 6 companies to Carrickfergus, 1 Newry, 2 Belfast, whilst the company which was still at Bantry was ordered to Carlingford Barracks.

In October, the several companies were directed to be made up to 50 men each, and none but Protestants were allowed to be enlisted.

On the 14th of January Lord Mark Kerr was appointed commander-in-chief of the towns of Carrickfergus and Belfast, as well as of all H.M. forces quartered within the counties of Down and Antrim. Towards the middle of April, the regiment marched for Limerick, where Col. Dormer's and Col. Kane's regiments were also in garrison.

1717 - 1718
Leaving these quarters in April, 1717, it marched to Navan, thence to Drogheda, and on the 19th of May arrived in Dublin, where it remained till June, 1718, when it marched to Kilkenny.

On the 26th of December war was proclaimed against Spain.

The Serjeants' Hats of Lord Mark Kerr's regiment, were at this period, laced with silver.

In 1719 the regiment was again held in readiness to repel a threatened invasion in favour of the Pretender, this time by a Spanish force, and on the 17th of March proceeded to Kinsale,where it encamped till the 23rd of May, when the Spanish expedition having been dispersed and disabled by a storm, and the hopes of the Jacobites frustrated, the regiment proceeded to Dublin and did duty there till November, when it marched to Galway.

Lord Mark Kerr by Coll. Kennedy assigns to Mr. Jos. Kane, cloathier, in consideration of the following particulars of cloathing, the full off-reckonings* of his regiment for one year commencing the 25th of March, 1719, amounting to the net sume of £1201. 9s. 2d.


21 Coats and Breeches 9 Coats and Breeches  
19 Hatts and 2 Grenadr Caps 8 Hatts and 1 Grand Cap 400 Coats and Breeches
21 Pairs of Shoes 9 Pairs of Shoes 355 Hatts and 45 Grand Caps
21 Pairs of Stockings 18 Shirts and Cravats 400 Pair of Shoes
42 Shirts and Cravats   800 Shirts and Cravats

* "Off Reckonings."—A specific account, so-called, which existed between the Government and the colonels, for the cloathing of their men. James' Military Dictionary.

By Royal Warrant, dated the 27th February, 1720, the king fixed the prices of all commissions ; those in Lord Mark Kerr's regiment being -

Colonel and Captain £6000
Lt.-Col. and Captain £2400
Major and Captain £1800
Captain £1000
Captain Lieutenant £450
Lieutenant £300
Ensign £200
Adjutant £150
Qr. Master £150

The regiment returned to Dublin the 1st April, 1720, where it 1721 remained till the 1 5th May, 1721.

In 1723, we find that Lord Mark Kerr assigned to Jos. Kane the off-reckonings for one year, in consideration of the following arms and accoutrements:
                               400 Musketts and Bayonetts                 400 Waist Belts
                               400 Pouches and Collars                      400 Slings

The strength of the regiment in October was 50 non-commissioned officers and 380 private men.

Steel rammers, were this year fitted to firelocks made for wooden ones.

The wearing of swords by the N.C.O'S, rank and file, appears to have been discontinued at some previous time, for in the General Officer's letter book, is a letter from the Secretary at War, dated 1st 0f December, 1724, saying, "His Majesty has determined that all the non-commissioned officers and private men of his Foot forces shall wear swords, and that the off-reckonings should be protracted a month longer than usual, to prevent the expense falling on the officers."

We also find that Colonel Mark Kerr, by articles dated 2nd of April, 1725, assigned to Joseph Kane, the off-reckonings of his regiment of Foot for one month, from the 25th of March, 1725, amounting to
£102. 5s. 0d., in consideration of the said Joseph Kane's furnishing the said regiment with 390 swords.
The quarters occupied by the companies this year were as follows:-


1 Company at Newmarket 1 Company at Tralee
1      "         "  Dingle 1      "         "  Dungarvan
2      "         "  Youghal 2      "         "  Limerick
1      "         "  Kilmeedy & Needeen 1      "         "  Colecormuck & Calleen

On the 25th of December, Colonel Henry Disney was given the H. Disney command of the regiment, vice Lord Mark Kerr transferred to the colonelcy of the present 13th Foot.

At the commencement of the next year, the Limerick garrison 1726 was composed of Col. H. Disney's, and Lanoe's regiments.‡

It being reported that the Spaniards had fresh ideas for the recovery of Gibraltar, two squadrons were equipped one destined for the Spanish West Indies, the other, under Sir John Jennings, to cruise off the coast of Spain, and to make a descent on it, should it be thought necessary.

With a view of serving on board the latter squadron, the regiments of Anstruther, Disney, Middleton,* and Newton having embarked at Cork, arrived at Portsmouth on the 7th of June. On the 15th, the transports escorted by the "Drake," sailed for the Downs, where Disney's regiment was put on board H.M.S. "Union," "Berwick," and "Canterbury."

On board the "Union" was Sergt.-Major Patrick Quinn, a sergeant of Lieut.-Colonel Kennedy's company. This is the earliest mention I have found of a non-commissioned officer holding that rank.

Leaving the Lizard the latter end of July, the squadron arrived at Lisbon the 25th August, and after re-victualling, proceeded to Cadiz.

Having cruised off and alarmed the coast of Spain, on the 29th of September it returned to Lisbon, and sailing thence, arrived at Portsmouth the 24th of October. The detachments on board H.M.S. "Berwick," and "Canterbury," having landed early in November, were ordered to march to Chatham.

Information being again received that the Spaniards were preparing to besiege Gibraltar, measures were taken by the government to reinforce that garrison. On the 1st of December the several companies of Colonel Disney's regiment were ordered to march at once to Southampton ; these, together with Col. Anstruther's, and Newton's regiments, having embarked at Portsmouth on Sir Charles Wager's fleet, landed at Gibraltar the 3rd February, 1727.


‡ Subsequently the 29th and 36th Regiments.
* Re-embarked for Ireland, 15th Inst.

The establishment of the regiment on the 27th April, 1727, was 35 officers, 20 sergeants, 20 corporals, 10 drummers, and 340 private men.

On arriving, it was found that the Spaniards, under Conde de la Torres, were encamped within a league of the place, and had raised two batteries. At a council of war held on the 10th inst., it was decided to warn the Conde that if he did not immediately desist, suitable measures should be taken. On the enemy's continuing the work, all possible obstruction was given by the fire of cannon and small arms.

About 10 p.m. the 12th of June, a drum was heard beating in the enemy's trenches, soon after which an officer advanced, bringing a letter with advice that preliminaries of peace (treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle) were signed. A cessation of hostilities was thereupon agreed to.

The following casualties occurred in the regiment between the 1727 11th of February and 12th of June:-†
Died — Captain Gilmour.                  Killed — 2 Rank and File.
Died — 2 Rank and File.                   Wounded — 12 Rank and File.
                                                     Deserted —  2 Rank and File.

Bland, in his Treatise of Military Discipline published this year, states, that a regiment was seldom formed four deep, except when very weak or for the punishing of soldiers by making them run the gauntlet. There were four paces between each rank, and three feet allowed to each man.

The Position of a Soldier:— "His feet to be at one pace distance, the heels in a straight line, and the toes turned a little outward."

The Colours carried by a Regiment were:— 1st, the colonel's ; 2nd, the lieut.-colonel's ; and 3rd (if one), the major's.

At a General's Inspection:— "The major, is to order the men to shoulder, as the general passes along the front; the officers are to salute him with their half pikes or partisans, and to time it in such a manner that each may just finish his salute and pull off his hat when he comes opposite to him."

When Marching Past in Grand Divisions:— "The major, is to salute on horseback at the head of the granadiers, being some paces advanced before the captain : but if he command the regiment, he is then to march on foot in the colonel's post, and salute with his half pike."

† Add. MS. 12,427 gives the list of regiments engaged in this siege and the casualties of each.

The establishment of the 10 companies was augmented from the 25th of December to 3 sergeants, 3 corporals, 2 drummers, and 50 private men each.


On the 10th of November 1729, the standard size of the men for the marching regiments was fixed at 5 ft. 8in., with shoes such as were given with the clothing.


1731 - 1733
February, 1731, Mr. Sutherland, son of Lord Duffus (now in the Czarina's service), to be ensign in Col. Disney's Foot.
On the death of Col. Disney, which took place the 21st of November, 1731, the colonelcy of the regiment was given to William Anne, Earl of Albemarle, "of the Coldstream Guards," who, on being promoted to the command of the 3rd troop of Horse Guards, was on the 5th of June, 1733, succeeded by Colonel George Read, 1st Foot Guards.

Soldiers at this period appear to have worn their hair powdered and well tucked up under their hats, but none on their shoulders.

Brigadier-General George Read being transferred to the colonelcy F. B. Fuller of the present 9th Foot, on the 28th of August, Colonel F. B. Fuller, 1st Foot Guards, was appointed to command the regiment.

The strength of each company, which on the 25th of June had been augmented to 60, was in December raised to 70 private men, making a total of 815, including the officers, &c.

The Spanish fleet having formed a junction with the French squadron at Toulon, orders were on the 7th of April, 1742, sent to Major-General Hargraves, "the lieutenant governor of Gibraltar," that in case Admiral Mathews should have occasion for a number of men to serve on board his ships, he should be furnished with 500 men from such regiments as were there stationed, viz., Col. Fowkes', Major-General Hargraves', Lieut.-General Columbine's, Brigadier Fuller's, and Col. Houghton's. From a State of the Garrison dated 9th of May, it appears that 313 non-commissioned officers and men of the above regiments, were then serving on board H.M.S. "Royal Oak."

Of Brigadier Fuller's regiment, Captain H. Symes, Ensign John Corrance, 2 sergeants, 2 corporals, 2 drummers, and 56 men were on board the fleet.


During 1743, the fleet continued in Hyerès Bay. The chief 1743 service it performed was blockading the French and Spanish fleet in Toulon harbour. On the 29th of November, the above detachments were turned over from the " Royal Oak " to H.M.S. " Rupert," which became engaged with the Spanish ships in the action of the 1 I th
February, 1744, when Admirals Mathews and Lestock engaged the Franco-Spanish squadrons off Toulon. The advantages gained in this action were lost through a misunderstanding between the English admirals.

On the 10th of May, 1744, Capt. Symes' detachment was turned over to H.M.S. "Barfleur," thence, in August, to the "Princessa," and on the 23rd of October back to the "Rupert" ; shortly after this, it landed at Gibraltar.
1743 At this period, all officers (of foot) carried espontoons instead of half-pikes. The espontoon or "spontoon," had a longer and larger blade than a half-pike, and was rendered more fit for execution by a cross-stop. Officers of the flank company, always carried fusils, or "fusees" as they were sometimes called.

By Royal Warrantt ‡ dated 14th September, no colonel was allowed to put his arms, crest, device, or livery on any part of the appointments of his regiment.

The First Colour of every marching regiment was to be the great Union.

The Second Colour of Fuller's regiment, to be yellow, with the Union in the upper canton. In the centre of each colour was to be painted, in gold Roman figures, the number† of the rank of the regiment, within a wreath of roses and thistles on one stalk.

The Size of the Colours was 6 feet 6 inches flying ; 6 feet deep on the pike.

The Drummers to be clothed with yellow, lined, faced, and lapelled with red ; and laced in such a manner as the colonel should think fit for distinction's sake, the lace being of the colour of that on the soldiers' coats. From the picture of a private of the 29th Regiment dated 1742, the lace appears to be plain white tape.

The Front of the Grenadiers' Caps to be yellow, with the king's 1743 cypher embroidered, and crown over it ; the little flap to be red, with the white horse and motto of the regiment over it. The back part to be red ; the turn up to be yellow ; the number of the regiment may be in figures, on the middle part behind.

The Bells of Arms, or " bell tents, where the company's arms were lodged in the field," to have the king's cypher and crown and the number of the regiment under it, painted on a ground of yellow.

The Drums to be painted in the same manner.

The Camp Colours to be 18 inches square, and of yellow, with the rank of the regiment upon them.

The Sashes of the Officers to be of crimson silk, and worn over the right shoulder. Their sword knots to be of crimson and gold in stripes, and their gorget, silver like the lace of their uniforms.

Serjeants to wear worsted sashes, round their waists, of red striped with yellow.

‡ In the warrants of 1751 and '68, only alterations in the preceding warrant have been quoted.
† "Gentleman's Magazine," 1743 ; mentioned as the XXIX. regiment of foot.

In April, 1744, Hargrave's, Columbine's, Fuller's, and Houghton's 1744 regiments were ordered to cause a sufficient number of commissioned and non-commissioned officers, to repair from Gibraltar without loss of time to Middlesex, London, Westminster, and Southwark, there to receive such able-bodied men as offered as volunteers, or prest men as should be delivered over to them respectively by the commissioners appointed by the Act then in force "for the speedy and effectual recruiting of His Majesty's land forces and marines."
In 1744, Col. Weideman, a German, brought light field pieces into use again.* His pieces were made of sheets of copper rolled up and soldered together ; they were so very light that a 6-pdr. weighed no more than two hundredweight and a-half, and yet stood all the proofs that were required. This gave rise to our light field pieces or battalion guns.

* Gustavus Adolphus was the first who ordered 2 field pieces to be attached to each battalion.

The mode of dressing the hair in a pigtail instead of the "Ramilie tail" is said to have been introduced in 1745.

"Grose" says that in June, 1745, battalion companies in general ceased to carry swords. ( Vide 1784).

The regiments of Fuller and Warburton, being ordered to repair from Gibraltar to Cape Breton, embarked for Louisburg the 28th of October, but meeting with very stormy weather, the transports were obliged to stop at the Leeward Islands, and afterwards at Virginia, where the troops were mustered by the governor of that colony from the 25th of December — 24th of April, 1746, when, sailing again, they reached Louisburg about the middle of May.

It having been decided to raise two regiments for the defence and preservation of the Island of Cape Breton, on arriving there, Col. Fuller found orders for him to hand over to Colonel William Shirley, 1 serjeant, qualified to be serjeant-major, 5 corporals, to be serjeants, and 5 privates, to be corporals, in order that they might be incorporated into this new regiment.

The garrison of Louisburg now consisted of Genl. Fuller's, Col. Warburton's, Col. Shirley's, Sir William Pepperell's, and 3 companies of Col. Frampton's regiment.

About the middle of September, the governor of the island, Commodore Knowles, sent the "Shirley" (Capt. Rouse), with a transport schooner as a tender, and Captain Hugh Scott, an ensign, and 40 men of Fuller's regiment, to a small island called St. John's, for stock. On their approach, the French inhabitants carried their effects, and drove their cattle into the woods. However, on the landing of French deputies (who accompanied Capt. Rouse), with proposals from Governor Knowles, the people readily consented to part with one-half of their stock of cattle, &c., which they were to be paid for, and sent a great part of it down from the woods into the town for their use. Captain Rouse therefore sent his son (a youth of 16 years of age), and a guard of soldiers, with his coopers, on shore to work, but as soon as they were landed the treacherous inhabitants sent for a party of 1746 Indians, who, taking the opportunity when the soldiers were making hay for the cattle, of surprising the tent where their arms lay, shot the sentry, seized the arms, and murdered or took prisoners the greater part of those who were ashore, except the son of Captain Rouse, who in his clothes took to the water, and swam, with his silver buckles in his mouth, to his father's ship, which was all this time firing on the Indians but with little effect, for no sooner did they see the least flash than they fell down on their faces. A grenadier of Fuller's regiment, whose wife was ashore washing, endeavoured to rescue her, but failed. The Indians then attacked him, but shooting two dead, he knocked down two others with his firelock. Seeing his ensign in danger, the grenadier took him in his arms, threw him into the sea, jumped in after him, and carried him safe on board the "Shirley." In this surprise, Captain Rouse lost all his linen which was ashore being washed, whilst 27 soldiers and 7 sailors were killed. When the Indians made their first appearance, Captain Scott was just going ashore. The governor, in a report sent home, says: "I cannot find the officer who commanded, anyways blamable."

On the 20th of October, Captain Scott, taking with him 40 French prisoners, was sent with a flag of truce to the commanding officer of the French squadron, which had recently arrived in Cherbouton (Chebuctoo) Harbour, with proposals to exchange the men captured on the island of St. John's.

This having been accomplished, he returned to Louisburg the 14th of November.

Writing from Louisburg, 20th of January, 1747, to the Duke of 1747 Newcastle, Governor Knowles says:-

"As to this Place, words are wanting to represent it, the severity of the weather being now such, and the miseries and sufferings of the Troops so great, as to be beyond expression or comprehension. Many have been Froze to Death, and the Sentrys, though relieved every half hour, frequently loose their Toes and Fingers: some have lost their Limbs by mortification in a few hours. The Houses and Quarters in general are so bad they cannot be made to keep out the snow and cold, so that officers and men have but little comfort even within doors when off duty. The snow in many places laying 10, 12, and 16 feet deep, nothing is more common than for one Guard to Digg the other out of the Guard Room before they can relieve them."

In March, Lt.-Col. Peregrine Hopson, of Fuller's regiment, was appointed governor of the island of Cape Breton.

Fifes, which in 1743 had been revived by the Guards, were this year adopted by the other marching regiments, the 1 9th Foot being the first to set the example. They were afterwards allowed to the grenadier companies only, but most drummers were taught the use of them, as well as of the drum.

On the 11th of March, 1748, a congress was opened at Aix la Chapelle, the chief parties being Great Britain, Holland, and Austria, on one side, France and Spain on the other. In October, a treaty was signed by all the belligerent powers, and it was agreed that Cape Breton should be restored to the French in exchange for Madras.

Orders were now sent to Governor Hopson, to incorporate the privates of the 3 companies of Lt.-General Frampton's regiment, " which had for some time been stationed at Louisburg," with Major-General Fuller's regiment.

In May, the colliery at the Table, near Indian river, on the east side of the island, having been attacked by a party of French and Indians, it was decided to erect a blockhouse for its future defence, and 1 lieutenant, 1 serjeant, 1 corporal, and 25 privates of the regiment were sent there, on command.

Major-General Fuller having died on the 9th of June, Lt.-Colonel Hopson succeeded to the command of the regiment.

On the 1 2th of August, Ensign FitzHugh of Hopson's, and some 1748 officers of the garrison, having obtained the governor's leave to go to Miray, after remaining there a few days, went up the river as far as the Great Lake to reconnoitre, but on endeavouring to get ashore at the house of a neutral Frenchman, were surprised by (as they afterwards computed) 160 French and Indians, who, it appears, came to the Island with the design of destroying the colliery and settlement in the N.E. harbour. Making a hideous noise, as usual, they rushed into the water, upset the boats, and dragged the officers in a barbarous manner to the shore. Some of them were then stripped, and for a considerable time pinioned with ropes. In this condition they were taken to the French-man's house and brought before the commanding officer Monsr. Marin, and a missionary, who, on being told that a cessation of arms had been concluded between France and England about three weeks previously, seemed much surprised.

Next morning the officers were embarked in a birch canoe and taken to the head of the lake, where they were landed and marched through the woods to Le Bras d'or. Being met here by more Indians and about 40 canoes, they were re-embarked, and after two days' paddling upon the water, and at night sleeping in the woods, they arrived at St. Peter's, and crossing over the neck of land, re-embarked for Bay Vert, which was reached after a nine days' passage.

Monsr. Marin, and the missionary having promised the officers that everything which had been taken from them should be returned on their arriving here, they applied for them, but were told if they wanted their things, they must purchase them from the Indians.

In a declaration signed at Bay Vert, the 29th of August, by the five officers thus captured, it appears that they promised to pay Monsr. Marin, commanding officer of the French and Indians, the expense he was at in ransoming them from the Indians ; also that Ensign Fitz Hugh had been plundered of a silver spoon, 2 shirts, 1 stock, 1 neckcloth, 1 pair stockings, 1 handkerchief, 5 china coffee cups, teapot and slop basin, 4 knives and forks, a powder horn, and shot bag, and had paid 10s. for his fuzee.

War being now at an end, the regiments of Shirley, and Sir W. Pepperell were disbanded, and Colonel Hopson was ordered to reduce his, to Irish numbers, viz., 2 serjeants, 2 corporals, and 29 effective men per company.
It having been decided to establish a civil government in the Province of Nova Scotia, for its better peopling and settling, notice was given that grants of land would be made to such of the officers and private men lately dismissed H.M. land and sea forces as were willing to settle there. Enticed by these advantages, about 4000 persons with their families, embarked from Great Britain under command of Colonel Cornwallis, and landed in Chebuctoo harbour in June. On the arrival of the French governor and troops to garrison Louisburg, Col. Cornwallis ordered the English garrison of Cape Breton to join him, and on the 28th of July Hopson's and Warburton's regiments arrived at Chebuctoo on board French transports.

Captain John Roberts, then a private in the regiment, stated that on landing they were employed in cutting down the trees, and clearing the ground, and that he drove in pegs to mark out the new town, which took its name from the Earl of Halifax, who presided at the Board of Trade, and had the principal share in the founding of this colony.

Having remained here a short time, the regiment sailed for Ireland, 1750 and on landing was stationed at Cork. The following year it proceeded to take up quarters at Limerick.

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